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201 Magistrate in Athol, Prince Edward County, Ontario, Canada. Van Alstyne, Cornelis (I5383)
 
202 Margaretha did not come with the rest of the family from Germany to theUS, so it is assumed she died before 1869. Wohlgehagen, Margaretha Magdalena Henriette (I9577)
 
203 Marilla lives alone with kids in 1880 census, lived in michigan, so death there is just guess. Van Alstyne, Linus (I11881)
 
204 Mark and Isadora also lived in Chatham, and since he was the same age as my Grandfacther's brother markie J., I am assuming this was the same person. Dugan, Markie J. (I34)
 
205 Married sister's husband after her sister Kate's death. Devore, Sarah T. (I3815)
 
206 Member of Methodist church, Montpelier. Lived near Montpelier andMarkle, In. Rev. Earl D. Imier officiated at funeral. Earhart, Ina Isadore (I3948)
 
207 METHODIST MINISTER. SERVED OVER 50 YEARS IN VARIOUS PASTORATES OF THEERIE (LATER WESTERN PA) CONFERENCE OF THE METHODIST CHURCH. THE "BRAZILNUTS", I.E. THE DAUGHTERS OF LOREN RENO, LIVED WITH THE ROSSELLS WHILEATTENDING COLLEGE IN THIS COUNTRY. Rossell, Rev. Ivan Everett (I367)
 
208 Moved from Canajoharie, NY to Oswego, NY in 1848. Van Alstyne, Mariah (I4879)
 
209 MOVED FROM DEANSBORO TO CAPRON (SUBURB OF UTICA, NY) ABOUT 1920. Burnham, Marietta (I2883)
 
210 Moved to Canajoharie, NY at 12 years old (1852). Was a pupil under Prof.Pearson at Union College (Schenectady, NY?), graduating 1862. Engaged ineducational work. Moved to Chicago, IL. Grand Commander of KnightsTemplar in Illinois 1886. Bromfield, Wilbur F. (I7579)
 
211 MOVED TO HOWARD, NY IN 1818. LIVED WITH OLDER SISTER, JEMIMA, IN OTSEGOCO., AFTER HER FATHER'S DEATH IN 1796. BURIED IN SMITH SETTLEMENTCEMETERY, HOWARD, NY. Greene, Silvia (I3006)
 
212 MOVED TO MONTGOMERY CO, NY AS A CHILD. Hollenbeck, Elisabeth Ann (I1887)
 
213 My Grandfather on my father's side. Dugan, Jesse J. (I22)
 
214 Name has been found also as Charles Simon and Charles Simon P. Not surewhich is correct. Hullinger, Charles H. (I4011)
 
215 NAMED AFTER ROGER WILLIAMS WHO FLED FROM RELIGIOUS PERSECUTION IN RHODEISLAND. DR. RATHBUN CAME FROM THIS LINE (DR IN CANAJOHARIE WHO DELIVEREDLESLIE WILLIAM ST.JOHN - 2/11/40). Rathbun, Williams Sr (I704)
 
216 Names
Patentees: JOHN J ANDERSON, LAURA VAN ALSTYNE
Warrantee: WILLIAM VAN ALSTYNE
Military Rank: SERGEANT

Survey
State: MISSOURI
Acres: 120
Metes/Bounds: No

Title Transfer
Issue Date: 11/15/1858
Land Office: Plattsburg
Cancelled: No
U.S. Reservations: No
Mineral Reservations: No
Authority: March 3, 1855: ScripWarrant Act of 1855 (10 Stat. 701)

Document Numbers
Document Nr.: 73639
Accession/Serial Nr.: 0119-274


 
Family F2427
 
217 NEWS ITEM IN PAPER (CANAJOHARIE COURIER?):
A very sad drowning occurred last Saturday afternoon when little ArthurSt.John, eleven year old son of Mr. and Mrs. Lewis S. St.John was drownedin the Canajoharie creek a short distance above the falls. Early in theafternoon Mrs. Andrew Hildabrant, Mrs. Alvin Lasher and two sons John andFrancis, aged nine and six years respectively, accompanied by the St.Johnboy went to spend the afternoon up the creek. The party descended to thebed of the creek by going through the Canajoharie Falls cemetery. Whilethe women were gathering ferns along the banks the boys went in wading atthe section of the creek known as the "Lady-slipper." The water at thispoint is shallow but farther up it is deeper and ledges of rock make thedrop from the shore uncertain and dangerous. As near as can beascertained the St.John boy left the shallow water and was walking alongthe ledge when he slipped and fell into the deep water. The older Lasherboy, John, was with him and was also in danger of drowning but wasassisted to shore by his younger brother, who also tried to rescue theSt.John boy. The Lasher boys ran to their mother for help and she triedto rescue the frowning boy, going into the water and being nearly drownedherself. The boys were immediately sent for help and Mrs. Lasher draggedthe water with a young sapling but to no avail. Just at this time EdgarBond and Richard Mahar were coming up the bed of the creek and heard thecries for help. Bond dove into the water and brought up the body whichhad been in the water about ten minutes. Artificial respiration was atonce resorted to and word sent to the village for aid. Dr. Prescotthurried to the scene of the accident and worked on the body until 7:30when the body was removed to the St.John home. Even then the attempt torestore life was continued but to no avail.
The accident cast a shadow of gloom over the community and on allsides were heard many expressions of sorrow and sympathy for the bereavedparents. It was indeed a hard blow coming as it did without warning. Thelad was an active, healthy boy and a source of pride and hope to hisparents.That he should be so suddenly removed seems indeed hard to bearbut is one of the things we cannot understand. He would have been elevenyears old the fifth of next month. Besides his parents he is survived bytwo sisters, Mildred and Ruth, ane one brother Donald. The funeral washeld Tuesday afternoon at two o'clock at the home, Rev. John Landry,pastor of the Methodist church officiating. Interment was made in theCanajoharie Falls cemetary.
7/5/1903-6/6/1914 
Stjohn, Arthur Lewis (I445)
 
218 Not my real uncle, but we called him Uncle Jessie (not to be confused with my real uncle Jessie or my Grandfather Jessie). I believe this is Tierney's Grandfather, which makes him my 2nd cousin, and Tierney my 4th cousin. Dugan, Jesse J. (I40)
 
219 NUN AT THE CONVENT OR ABBEY DE LA THURE. Renault, Dame Augestine (I1240)
 
220 ORIGINAL SETTLER OF RIDGEFIELD. Drake, John (I601)
 
221 Original Sources:

Part 1: http://www.rootsweb.com/~nyfulton/Turnpike/Canajoharie.html

Part 2: http://www.rootsweb.com/~nyfulton/Turnpike/Canajoharie1.html

Copyright © 2002

Fulton County NYGenWeb

Herkimer/Montgomery Counties NYGenWeb

All Rights Reserved.





Charles B Knox Gelatine Co. Inc.

Edition of

The Old Mohawk-Turnpike Book














"Canajoharie."

The original Can-a-jo-har-ie, meaning in the Mohawk

language, "the pot that washes itself" or "the boiling point".


This famous pothole is at the lower end of

Canajoharie Gorge.














CANAJOHARIE - PALATINE BRIDGE.


(Montgomery County)



Canajoharie, "the Pot That Washes Itself."

At the western village limits of Canajoharie, the creek flows from its
picturesque gorge. A short distance above is located a giant pot hole,
about ten feet in width, worn by the action of water and pebbles in the
limestone bed. This is the original Canajoharie, which Brant, the Mohawk
chieftain, defined as meaning "the pot that washes itself." The
Iroquois (like all Indians) had a keen eye for unusual landscape features
and this curious "Canajoharie" gave its name not only to the
stream, but to at least four of their castles (of different periods and
different locations) and to the entire river district from the Noses
(between Sprakers and Yosts) to Fall Hill (east of Little Falls).


The name Can-a-jo-ha-rie, has also been translated as "the boiling
pot."

The Canajoharie is remarkable for its salt spring, its remarkable
mineral springs, its gorge and falls and its unique pothole.


Because the name Canajoharie was applied to so many points in this
section, the loose use of the name has given rise to many historical
errors. In Revolutionary times the Canajoharie was known as Bowman's
creek.

Canajoharie Shale and Mohawk Valley Geology.

The general rock outcrops in the Mohawk valley are as follows: The
Clinton sandstone and limestone cap the western Mohawk - Susquehanna
divide, while the Helderberg limestone caps the eastern valley watershed
rim (except the Schoharie valley). The Clinton sandstone and limestone
occupy the southern Oneida county section. The southern Mohawk river shore
section is generally of Ordovicic shales (Canajoharie, Utica and
Frankfort). The northern river shore is generally of Ordovicic shales and
the Trenton series limestones. The northern valley has the Adirondack
pre-Cambric surface rocks. From north to south, Schoharie county has the
Helderberg limestones, the Hamilton shales and limestones and the Devonic
rocks of the Catskill region, where at Gilboa, Schoharie county, the
oldest fossil trees in the world were found in 1869, now on exhibition in
the New York State Museum, Education Building, Albany.


Shaper Pond or Quarry, Where the Brooklyn Bridge stone
was Quarried.

On West hill, Canajoharie, is a stone quarry, known as Shaper's Pond,
because it is unused and is now filled with clear spring water, making it
a picturesque pond in summer and a good skating rink in winter. It might
well be called "Brooklyn Bridge Pond," because here was quarried
the stone which was used in the building of the Brooklyn bridge; this
stone having been shipped from Canajoharie to Brooklyn by Erie canal
boats. Much early Erie canal construction and the stone used in building
many famous New York city buildings, of the middle nineteenth century,
were taken from the Shaper Quarry, which has been unworked since about
1900. The stone is a calciferous sandrock of the Lower Silurian era,
belonging generally to the Trenton limestone period. It is known locally
as limestone. This fine building stone has outcrops on the north side, as
at Frey's Quarry, and many of the old Colonial stone houses of this valley
section - such as the Van Alstyne House (1739) in Canajoharie and Ft. Frey
(1739) in Palatine Bridge, were built of it, as well as the later houses
and buildings of Canajoharie. It merits a general use for house and
building construction today - in fact, Canajoharians are proud of this
splendid stone and of their fine stone buildings, which give their town an
architectural distinction above most other valley towns.

Canajoharie -- Historical.

In 1634 the Mohawk castle of Canagere was located to the east of
present Canajoharie, while, between here and Fort Plain on the south shore
the tribe had its middle castle of Sochanidisse. There was a small group
of Mohawk cabins on the banks of the creek here when the site of present
Canajoharie was settled about 1730.


Hendrick Frey, 1689 -- First Settler in the Middle
Valley.

Hendrick Frey, a Swiss, came up the Mohawk in 1689, made friends with
and bought lands of the Mohawk Indians and settled in present Palatine
Bridge, where he built a log house. He was an intrepid pioneer who located
in a wild, unbroken wilderness, peopled by savage red men and the wild
animals of the Adirondacks. The nearest settlements were those of the
Holland-Dutch in the Schenectady neighborhood, thirty miles eastward. Frey
was an Indian trader and "kept store" in his log cabin, as did
his grandson, in Fort Frey, which was also a famous frontier general
store. A ferry was located here across the Mohawk and during the Colonial
and Revolutionary period Palatine Bridge was known as "Frey's."

Fort Frey -- 1689-1739.


Just north of Palatine Bridge and a few yards north of the railroad in
an open field, stands Fort Frey, a quaint stone house built in 1739, on
the site where Hendrick Frey located in the wilderness in 1689. This is a
typical Mohawk valley house of the time. It suggests vividly the times
when the hardy Mohawk Dutch farmers, clad in buckskin and homespun and
with guns, bayonets and knapsacks, gathered here and at scores of other
vicinity centers on the alarm of "To arms, to arms," given by
some neighborhood rider. The Frey property is still held by the Frey
family (1924). For a time Fort Frey was palisaded and garrisoned by
British troops during the French and Indian war of 1701-1713, known as
Queen Anne's war. The history of this interesting house is practically the
history of civilization along the middle Mohawk valley.

The Queen Anne's War fort here located, consisted of the first Frey log
house palisaded and fortified. Present Fort Frey, erected in 1739, was a
British army post, at least during the early part of the French-Indian war
of 1754-1760. Both the Fort Frey and the present Frey mansion are built of
the native calciferous sandrock, which outcrops at the Frey Quarry here
and at the Shaper Quarry on West hill, Canajoharie. The old fort has an
interesting cellar, with strong stone fireplaces, which well served the
Freys of Colonial and Revolutionary days in the mighty cold winters of the
pioneer days in the wilderness for those hardy pioneers lived much of the
rime in the cellars of their stone houses during the worst of the winter,
or, as one of their descendants puts it, "they would not have lived
at all." Present stone Fort Frey is loopholed for defense.

The name fort applied here has been questioned but as it is the site of
an earlier fort and probably had such use later, as aforementioned, the
term is justified.

Major John Frey (1740-1833) was a member and chairman of the Tryon
County Committee of Safety and major of the Palatine regiment of the Tryon
county brigade of American militia. He fought at Oriskany where he was
captured by the enemy and, as a captive, narrowly escaped death at the
hands of the Indians and his own Tory brother who fought on the enemy
side. Major Frey succeeded the Tory White as the sheriff of Tryon county
under American rule. The major was a historian and assisted Campbell in
the preparation of "Annals of Tryon County," published 1831,
which was the first Mohawk valley history. Major Frey was born in Fort
Frey in 1740 and died in the Frey (1808) mansion in 1833 at the age of 93,
he being one of the last surviving Revolutionary Mohawk valley officers.


A World War Post.

During the World war, New York Guardsmen occupied (1917) Fort Frey for
a time, while guarding the Barge canal here. The Frey property today is in
the possession of the seventh generation from Hendrick Frey, who located
(1689) here, 235 years prior to this writing (1924). Mr. S. Ludlow Frey,
here resident in 1924, is a historian who has been the valley's greatest
authority on Mohawk Indian history. With General John S. Clark, he has
done a great work in studying and locating Mohawk village sites in the
valley.

Frey Homestead, 1808.

The larger stone Frey house was built in 1808. However it is a true
type of Colonial architecture and one of the Mohawk river's most
interesting homesteads. It stands on a sightly river slope in a grove of
locust trees to the west of Fort Frey.


The King's Highway, 1739.

Fort Frey stands close to the Central railroad because, when it was
built in 1739, the King's Highway from Palatine Bridge to near St.
Johnsville generally followed the present railroad bed. In later turnpike
construction, this section of the Mohawk turnpike was located as at
present, on higher ground eastward from the railroad.

Hendrick Schrembling, Canajoharie's First Settler, 1730.

About 1730, Hendrick Schrembling, a Palatine German, and Martin Janse
Van Alstyne
bought of Cadwallader Colden 775 acres at Canajoharie.
Schrembling settled on the east side of the creek, while his brothers,
George and John, located on the west bank. In 1739 Schrembling sold the
east side property to his partner, Van Alstyne, who then came to live
here. Schrembling moved to the west bank farm, where he kept a tavern,
store and mill. The Schremblings left Canajoharie and the Valley at the
close of the Revolution.

Martin's grandson, and the son of Martin Martense Van Alstyne, Gose Van Alstyne built another grist mill on the creek about 1760. Col.
Hendrick Frey built a grist mill and a house here about 1772 and the Van
Alstyne
, Schrembling and Frey families were the residents here prior to
the Revolution. In 1778 Johannes Roof came to Canajoharie and bought out
Schrembling and conducted the inn. He had lived at Ft. Stanwix, where his
property was burned during the seige of the fort in 1777.


About 1775, Gose Van Alstyne, built a
stone house near the present (1924) Martin Smith house on Front street.
This was stockaded about 1780 and became Fort Van Alstyne of the
Revolution, with which the Van Alstyne house of today has been frequently
confused. After the Revolution the Gose Van Alstyne house was torn down
and its stone used for the building material, some of which is said to
have been used in the present Hayes house.














Van Alstyne House, 1739.

Built by Martin Janse Van Alstyne. The favorite meeting place of

the Tryon County Revolutionary Committee of Safety. Washington

stopped here in 1783. Now the home of the Fort Rensselaer Club.

Fort Rensselaer Club
More Current Photos


View Larger Map



The Van Alstyne House, 1739 --

Meeting Place of the Tryon County Committee of Safety.


During the Revolution Martin Janse Van Alstyne here lived in the Van
Alstyne
house, which he had built between 1735 and 1739. It was not palisaded but must
have been considered as a strong defense otherwise even its central Mohawk
valley location would not have made it the favorite meeting place of the
Tryon County Committee of Safety, which is known to have here held 16
meetings. Fort Frey, across the river, was not palisaded but it also was
considered a strong defense and both were never attacked.

As related later, General Washington reached Canajoharie August 1,
1783, and here he was a guest at the Van Alstyne house of Col. Clyde and
Mrs. Clyde, as well as of the Van Alstynes. The General and his staff took
dinner here and some of them also lodged here - as many as the house could
accommodate. This is one of perhaps four valley houses now standing which
were visited by Washington on this trip. The others were probably the
Shoemaker house in Mohawk, the General Herkimer house at Fall Hill and the
Volkert Vrooman house at Randall. General Washington also visited Fort
Herkimer Church.

Many distinguished men and women of Colonial, Revolutionary and
American days have visited the Van Alstyne house. Among them was the Irish
poet, Tom Moore, who stopped here on a trip from Canada to New York. He is
said to have here begun his famous poem, with the following opening lines:

From rise of morn till set of sun,
I've seen the mighty Mohawk run.


Moore continued writing the verses on board a river boat in which he
made the trip from Canajoharie to Schenectady, where he finished the poem.
Another version is that Moore wrote this poem at Cohoes Falls.


A handsome ball room stone addition has been built on the rear of the
house, in harmony with the architecture and masonry of the original
structure. The Fort Rensselaer Club has furnished the place in Colonial
style and it is one of the most artistically appointed club houses on the
New York to Buffalo highway. It houses interesting historical collections
and the nucleus of a splendid art gallery. Besides the painting of
Washington by Stuart, here is a series of paintings by Wyeth illustrating
Stevenson's "Treasure Island," all of these works of art being
the gift of Mr. Bartlett Arkell.

Canajoharie and Palatine Districts of Tryon County,
1772.

The Mohawks called the river region between the Noses and Fall Hill
(present Little Falls) by the name of Canajoharie and so did the pioneers
from 1662 until 1772, the year of the formation of Tryon county.


When the great county of Tryon was created, in 1772, it was divided
into five districts. From the present Schenectady county line westward to
the Noses was called the Mohawk district, including in it Fort Hunter,
Johnstown, Caughnawaga.

Between the Noses and Fall Hill the region south of the Mohawk was
created the Canajoharie district and that on the north shore, the Palatine
district. West of Fall Hill, the south shore settlements became the German
Flatts district and the north shore the Kingsland district. These
districts continued during the Revolution and the creation of the
Canajoharie district has caused much historical confusion. (See
Johnstown
.)

At the beginning of the Revolution, the houses hereabout suited for
defense were Fort Ehle (one mile south of Canajoharie), the Van Alstyne
house
, Fort Frey and Fort Keyser, north of Palatine Bridge. All were stone
houses and formed a refuge for neighbors in time of valley raids.

1779 -- Gen. Clinton's Army at Canajoharie -- Portage
March to Otsego Lake.

In 1779 Gen. Washington directed that an American expedition be sent
against the Iroquois country on account of the outrages committed by these
Indians along the New York and Pennsylvania frontiers - particularly at
Wyoming, Pa., and Cherry Valley, N.Y. The army was under the command of
Gen. Sullivan and Gen. James Clinton was directed to proceed up the Mohawk
river with the New York detachment of the army (1,500 men) and cross over
to the headwaters of the Susquehanna and down that river, combine with
Sullivan's army and together march against the Iroquois. Clinton's men
assembled at Schenectady and marched up the Mohawk to Canajoharie. Gen.
Clinton (June 17, 1779) left the Mohawk and marched across country to
Otsego lake, about 25 miles, carrying his 200 bateaux and supplies on
carts and wagons. Clinton and Sullivan's American armies combined and
decisively defeated Indians and Tories near Elmira, August 29, 1779, after
which the Americans thoroughly devastated the country of the Six Nations.
At Canajoharie, on Academy hill, two Tory spies, Lieut. Newberry and
Sergt. Hare, were hung by Gen. Clinton's orders, in spite of the pleas of
their wives for mercy. Both men had been guilty of atrocities in Mohawk
valley warfare and their fate was well-merited. The capture of Sergt. Hare
by a fifteen-year-old Revolutionary "boy scout," Francis Putman,
is mentioned elsewhere, under Amsterdam.


Clinton's army consisted of the 3rd, 4th, 5th, (with artillery) N.Y.,
4th Penn., 6th Mass. Line (regulars) regiments, with a force of Tryon
County and Schenectady militia, attached to the 3rd N.Y. The center 3rd
N.Y. (Col. Gansevoort) and 4th Penn. (Lt. Col. Wm Butler) convoyed the
wagon train, consisting of 220 batteaux loaded on eight horse team wagons
and oxcarts, and other supply wagons, on the 25 mile portage from the
Mohawk at Canajoharie to Otsego lake. The 4th N. Y. (Col. Weissenfels)
formed the left wing. The 5th N.Y. (Col. Dubois), with artillery, formed
the right wing and was deployed over the Otsquago Trail near Summit (Mud)
lake to guard the center from expected attack from the west (See Fort
Plain
.) The 6th Mass. (Major Whiting) marched from its post at Cherry
Valley to the lake. Camps were made on the march at Buel, Sprout Brook,
Starkville, Browns Hollow and Springfield. Gen. Clinton reached the head
of Otsego lake , July 2, and on the 4th of July, 1779, all the American
troops there camped held a great celebration of the third Independence
day. Clinton dammed the lake outlet and the expedition sailed in its
batteaux and marched down the Susquehanna, Aug. 9, 1779, and joined Gen.
Sullivan at Tioga, Aug. 22.

John Fea, the Amsterdam historian, who has made a fifty-year study of
this portage - one of the most remarkable American army feats of the
Revolution - says that the center went from Canajoharie over the Happy
Hollow road, the left wing over the Cherry Valley road (built 1773) and
the right wing over the Otsquago Trail. All these roads were then in
existence and only short stretches were cut and made by the troops. The
3rd N.Y. was camped on the flats at Canajoharie and the 4th Penn. on the
flats between the 3rd and the Happy Hollow road. Regiments numbered about
250 each. Clinton's force on the portage numbered about 2,000, including
batteaux men, artificers and about 200 Mohawk Valley farmers, who with
their horses and oxen assisted in this historic and famous portage march.

A monument in the Canajoharie public square marks the beginning of
Clinton's wilderness march. It was erected by Canajoharie Chapter,
Daughters of the American Revolution.

Currytown Massacre and Battle of Sharon Springs, 1781.

Currytown is a little hamlet about five miles southeast of Canajoharie,
which was the scene of an Indian-Tory massacre, July 9, 1781. The valley
American troops from Fort Plain pursued the enemy and routed them at the
Battle of Sharon Springs, July 10, 1781. A little boy named Devendorf, was
scalped by the Indians that day, but recovered and lived for seventy years
after. There were numerous instances of people scalped hereabouts who
survived thereafter many years.


Washington at Canajoharie and the Van Alstyne House,
Aug. 1, 1783.

In the summer of 1783, Gen. Washington made a tour of the Mohawk
valley, with a military escort, westward from Schenectady to the site of
Fort Stanwix (burned 1781), at present Rome. Washington made this trip in
connection with one to Crown Point and the battlefields where Burgoyne and
the British cause met defeat. In a letter to Gen. Schuyler, Washington
writes of this trip as:


"A tour to reconnoitre those places where the most remarkable
posts were established and the ground which became famous by being the
theatre of action in 1777. On our return from thence, we propose to pass
across the Mohawk river, in order to have a view of that tract of country,
which is so much celebrated for the fertility of its soil and the beauty
of its situation."


General Washington went west to Fort Stanwix from Schenectady, probably
following the Mohawk Turnpike on the north shore, a great part of the way.
On his return east, Washington dined at Fort Plain (Fort Rensselaer) July
31, and, in the afternoon, rode to Cherry Valley where he spent the night.


On August 1, the party rode to Otsego lake and, from thence, passed
over the route taken by Gen. Clinton's army in his Canajoharie-Otsego
march of 1779. Col. Clyde then commanded Fort Plain (officially known as
Fort Rensselaer). At the close of hostilities he brought his family up to
Canajoharie and installed them in the Van Alstyne house. Here Gen.
Washington and his staff dined with Col. and Mrs. Clyde on the evening
of August 1, 1783, and here the General remained over night, while his
staff took quarters in the Roof tavern. On August 2, Washington and his
party rode eastward down the valley. Nowhere, except at Canajoharie,
Cherry Valley and Fort Plain, have we any detailed record of this valley
trip.

At all valley points people gathered to greet their national hero. At
Canajoharie Washington is said to have addressed the crowd from a store
near Roof's tavern, and later is said to have patted the head of a little
negro boy. An eye witness says that this kindly act so displeased some
"prideful whites" that they left the scene in disgust. From
Albany Washington returned by boat on the Hudson to Newburg.

Washington regarded this tour as most important and wrote to the
Congressional president concerning it. He paid particular attention to the
Mohawk river-Wood creek route and the possibilities of its water
transportation, as well as the "portage between that [Otsego] lake
and the Mohawk river at Canajoharie."

Canajoharie - Palatine Bridge, 1783-1920.


After the Revolution the settlement here, known as Roof's village, and
also as Canajoharie, numbered about a dozen houses.

The first merchants to settle in Canajoharie after the Revolution were
the Kane brothers, who located in the Van Alstyne house about 1790, later
removing to Van Alstyne's ferry, one mile east. Others soon followed.
Historical Canajoharie dates of interest follow:

In 1790, first turnpike mail stages run from Albany through Schenectady
and Johnstown to Canajoharie; later extended to Utica and Geneva. 1800,
Great Western Turnpike (parallel route to Mohawk Turnpike, 10 to 15 miles
south) connects at Canajoharie with Turnpike stages. 1800, about 12 houses
here. 1803, bridge built across Mohawk. 1817-1825, Erie canal construction
booms village. 1818, Union (first) church built. 1829, village
incorporated. 1859, manufacture of paper bags begun by James Arkell. 1867,
Palatine Bridge incorporated as a village. 1882, West Shore railroad line
run through Canajoharie business section. 1890, food packing industry
started. 1916, silk industry started in Palatine Bridge.

Susan B. Anthony, the Great Suffragist, a Teacher in
Canajoharie Academy in 1848.

In 1848, Susan B. Anthony, the later suffrage leader, was a preceptress
or lady principal and teacher in Canajoharie Academy. In the history of
women's suffrage, Canajoharie takes a prominent place as it was, while
living here in Canajoharie, that Miss Anthony became interested in the
anti-slavery cause and later in that of women's political rights. Susan B.
Anthony finally gave up teaching in 1850, left Canajoharie and joined
Elizabeth Cady Stanton at her home in Seneca Falls, where Mrs. Stanton was
already advocating women's suffrage. Together these two intellectual
leaders made a strong plea for their cause, which might not have succeeded
without their united strength. As Elizabeth Cady Stanton was a native of
Johnstown and there developed her ideas of women's political and legal
rights, and, as Miss Anthony became interested in the same subjects here
in Canajoharie - the Mohawk valley may be truly said to be the cradle of
the cause of women's suffrage and of women's political rights- progressive
politics and political ideals which have become the political creed of
women the world around. (See Elizabeth Cady Stanton under Johnstown.)


Miss Anthony was born in 1820 and died in 1906, aged 86 years, at a
time when many of the western states had adopted women's suffrage.

Canajoharie - Palatine Bridge in 1840.

In 1840, Canajoharie is described as follows: "The village is
situated on the south side of Mohawk river. Incorporated in 1829. It has 4
churches - 1 Presbyterian, 1 Dutch Reformed, 1 Lutheran and 1 Methodist -
an academy, 10 stores, 2 grist mills, 2 distilleries, 1 brewery, 1
furnace, 2 saw mills. It furnishes fine stone for building and for the
construction of locks in the Erie canal. The Erie canal passes through the
center of the village. The Catskill and Canajoharie railroad will
terminate here." No population is given but about 800 in Canajoharie
and 1,000 in Canajoharie-Palatine are indicated. In 1840 Palatine Bridge
is thus described as being "opposite the village of Canajoharie with
which it is connected by a bridge. It contains 1 church, 3 stores, 30
dwellings and about 200 inhabitants. Here is a fine quarry of building
stone."





Webster Wagner's Sleeping and Parlor Car Inventions,
1858.




Palatine Bridge was the home of Webster Wagner (1817-1882) , a
prominent railroad man of the mid-nineteenth century. Mr. Wagner manufactured one of the first practicable sleeping
cars made in America. In
1858 Mr. Wagner formed a company and four cars were produced, which began
running over the New York Central railroad, Sept. 1, 1858. Finding the
cars' occupants suffered from defective and insufficient ventilation, Mr.
Wagner in 1859, invented the elevated car roof, placing ventilators in the
elevation. This invention which has worked so much for the benefit and
comfort of the traveling public, has had a general and world-wide
adoption. This same traveling public should gratefully think of its
benefactor. In 1867 Wagner produced the first drawing room coach or palace
car. Pullman introduced a similar type in Europe and about 1890 the two
companies producing the Wagner and Pullman cars were merged into one
concern under the name of the Pullman Palace Car Co.

Hon. Webster Wagner (State Senator from this district) was burned to
death in one of his palace cars in the Spuyten Duyvil railroad accident of
1882.

In 1878 Senator Wagner built the Wager House in Canajoharie, one of the
first modern hotels in the Mohawk valley.

Wagner and Schenck.

It is remarkable that Palatine Bridge is so closely connected with the
beginning of Central freight traffic and also with two men so vitally
identified with transportation interests -- Webster Wagner and Martin
Schenck. Wagner's work was for the promotion of the comfort and
convenience of railroad travelers, while Schenck's Barge canal plan has
untold future possibilities for the movement of heavy freight. Webster
Wagner was born near Palatine Bridge, while Martin Schenck was born in the
Schenck homestead four miles east, and the lives of both men were spent
largely in this locality. Schenck was State Engineer in 1892, when he made
his Barge canal plans public in his annual report.


Birth of New York Central Freight Traffic, 1836.

In the fall of 1836 (the year of the opening of the Utica &
Schenectady railroad) the freight business of the New York Central had its
inception at Palatine Bridge.

At this time the idea of carrying freight was not entertained. The
charter forbade it, consequently no preparations for the transmission of
merchandise had been made by the company. The desire of the superintendent
seemed to be to confine the business of the road to the carrying of
passengers. The occasion for handling freight, however, of course, arose
on the closing of the canal in 1836. On the very day that frost stopped
navigation in that year, a German family, wishing to convey their effects
from Palatine Bridge to Schenectady, were permitted to ship them on a car,
and this, it may be said, was the beginning of the way freight business of
the Central railroad. The conductor in this case, having no tariff of
rates to guide him, made the rather exorbitant charge of $14. The
legislature, in 1837, authorized the company to carry freight and
subsequently made the regulation, allowing passengers to have a specified
amount of baggage carried free of charge. The first freight cars were
called "stage wagons."

May 18, 1914, a "test" train of 125 freight cars passed up
the Mohawk valley over New York Central R.R. Up to that date this was the
longest train which had passed over this road, it being nearly a mile in
length.


Sochanidisse, Middle Mohawk Castle of 1634.

On the southern Mohawk shore, in the Happy Hollow section a mile of so
west of Canajoharie, on a high hill overlooking the river, the Mohawks had
their castle of Soch-an-i-dis-se in 1634. This was their great middle
castle and had 32 houses. John Fox, the historian, locates Sochanidisse on
the Brown farm. All the high ground between Happy Hollow brook westward to
Prospect hill, Fort Plain, was called Tsi-dros-o-wen-gen by the Mohawks
and the Hog's Back by the white settlers. It is thickly covered with
Mohawk remains, indicating a considerable Indian population and long
occupancy. Near here the Mohawks had a pow wow place which the Dutch
pioneers called de Danskammer (the dance chamber), where the Indians held
their savage rites and wild dances.

Van Slyck Patent, 1716.

In 1716, Capt. Harmanus Van Slyck of Schenectady was granted, by the
Mohawks, all the land bordering the north bank of the river, from the Big
(or Anthony's) Nose westward to the present eastern limits of the village
of Nelliston, a distance of seven miles. This grant was made because of
Van Slyck's Mohawk Indian relationship, his grandfather, Cornelisse
Antonsen Van Slyck, having traded near here and married a Mohawk woman
abut 1640. Harmanus located on the river over a mile west of the
Canajoharie-Palatine Bridge Central station where hebuilt a house and saw
mill. Only a foundation marks the site. His son, Major Harmanus Van Slyck,
was a prominent Revolutionary patriot and soldier.

DETOUR TO STONE ARABIA CHURCHES.


The tourist going west, can take a detour 4 miles north from Palatine
Bridge to the historic Stone Arabia churches. He can return to the Mohawk
Turnpike at Nelliston, 4 miles west from the churches.

On clear days the Cherry Valley mountains, 12 to 15 miles southward,
may be seen rising over a fertile farming plateau. The Stone Arabia
section. with its two interesting old churches, is historically most
important. As previously mentioned it was one of the first (1711)
locations of Palatine German settlement in America and it was an important
Revolutionary point.

The outcrop of the surface rock is the Trenton limestone in the river
sections of the Palatine township of Montgomery county, which covers the
old Stone Arabia section. The upland rock is Hudson river shale. The
Palatine township stone fences are noticeable features of the landscape
all through this section.

In the detour north, the tourist rises from a Mohawk Turnpike sea
elevation of 340 feet, to a sea elevation of 820 feet at the Stone Arabia
Reformed church, close to which Nelliston creek has its source.






 
Family F265
 
222 OWNED ORIGINAL HOMESTEAD AT KINDERHOOK, NY. WAS A CORPORAL IN CAPT.STEENWYCK'S CO. IN 1673. AN ENSIGN IN 1689-1700, AND A CAPTAIN IN 1714. Van Alstyne (van Aelsteyn), Abraham Janse (I1215)
 
223 Per Catherine Van Alstyne (his granddaughter) in Lester Van Alstine'sbook, pg 267: My grandfather was killed and scalped in his own housenear Schoharie Creek, (then called Fort Hunter) during the war. Mymother and my older sister sat hid in some hazel bushes near the house,heard the yell and war-whoop, but were not aware that their father was inthe house, for he had once left it, but had probably returned to it forthe purpose of getting something out he had forgotten. Schrembling, George (I4877)
 
224 per Lester Van Alstine book, pg105:
He and his wife are buried in a plot of ground south of the dwelling ofEdward Van Alstyne in a field set out to orchard in the fall of 1913. Upto this time this plot has been kept sacred from the plow or crop, with alarge quarried stone on each corner. 
Van Alstyne, Johannes (John) (I6678)
 
225 per Lester Van Alstine book, pg128ff:

Hon. Thomas Jefferson Van Alstyne, son of Dr. Thomas Butler Van Alstyneand Eliza Shepard (Giles) Van Alstyne, was born in Richmondville,Schoharie County, New York, where his father was then a practicingphysician. He first studied at the public schools, until, by his naturalinclination for serious appplication and a strong desire for knowledge,he had prepared himself thoroughly for a higher education. At the age ofthirteen, while visiting the house of his brother-in-law, a Baptist inCayuga County, he conceived the purpose of acquiring an education whichwould fit him to make his own mark in the world, so he entered theMoravia Academy. After that he completed his preparation for college byattending Hartwick Seminary. With six of his companions he matriculatedat Hamilton College, from which he was graduated in 1848, receiving thedegree of Bachelor of Arts, and in 1851 that of Master of Arts...Practised law and had his office at the Douw Building, Broadway and StateSt., Albany, NY. Was a democrat, elected judge of Albany County in 1871,presided for 12 years, elected congressman in 1882. 
Van Alstyne, Thomas Jefferson (I6973)
 
226 per Lester Van Alstine book, pg58:
Born April 12, 1845 at Poelsburgh in the town of Stuyvesant, NY. He waseducated in district schools, Schodack Academy, Volkert Whitbeck'sClassical School at Albany and Stratton's Commercial College. He studiedlaw at Hudson, NY with Beale and Benton, admitted to the bar at New YorkCity in 1868. He became a resident of Spring Valley, Rockland County, NYin 1887. Delegate to Democratic National Convention at Chicago, IL in1892, council for the town of Ramapo and the Village of Spring Valley forseveral years. Member of Holland and Columbia County Societies, member ofReformed Church, in politics an independent Democrat. 
Van Alstyne, Philip (I5649)
 
227 per Lester Van Alstine book, pgs140-141:
Fayette Sheppard Van Alstyne was a living example of the benefits to bederived from being early in life thrown upon one's own resources.
Before he was three years old his father died leaving his family instraightened circumstances, a condition brought about by the financialdisasters of 1832-7. Fayette was then taken into his grandfather'sfamily, under the immediate charge of his maiden aunts, Temperance andLouisa. He lived with them until about nine years of age, when his AuntLouisa married, and took her young charge with her to a new home. Here hereceived such advice and instruction as was best calculated to enable himto fight the battle of life to a successful finish.
He derived a fair education from the common schools and a shortcourse at Hartwick Seminary.
While yet a boy he became tally clerk for a large lumber firm inAlbany, and afterwards a clerk in a commercial house on Washington St.,New York. In both of these positions he acquited himself with credit tohimself as well as to the satisfaction of his employers, but neither ofthem suiting him for a life occupation, he accepted the advice of HoraceGreely, "young man, go west."
He soon found employment with the Louisville and Nashville RailrayCompany, and by always doing well whatever he was given to do, he soonbecame managing freight agent for that company.
He found railroading a congenial occupation, and so conductedhimself in it that he was rapidly advanced from one position of trust toanother.
Upon his death in 1883, Mr. F.S. Gray, the western manager of the"Union Line-National Line of Transportation", wrote of him as follows:
It is my sad duty to announe the death of Mr. Fayette S. VanAlstyne, General Southern Agent of these lines, which occurred inColumbus, Ohio, on Tuesday morning, October 30th.
"By the death of Mr. Van Alstyne our organization loses an officerwhose sound judgment, bright intellect, sterling worth, with strictintegrity and manly traits of character, will be long remembered by hisassociates, and by all who had business or social relations with him." 
Van Alstyne, Fayette Sheppard (I7079)
 
228 per Lester Van Alstine book, Vol.I, pg97:
He was one of the best farmers in western New York. He kept hisbuildings and everything connected with his farm in perfect order, givingwork to a great many poor people who lived near him. His politics wereDemocratic of the old stamp. He died in his 51st year on his farm inWebster, New York, near the shore of Lake Ontario, leaving his wife andnine unmarried children. They were the parents of eleven children. 
Van Alstyne, Abraham (I6524)
 
229 per Lester Van Alstine book, vol.I,pg97:
He was the youngest son, went to California when a young man, was goneabout forty years, returning to Webster, NY, his old home one year beforehis death. He never married. 
Van Alstyne, Martin A. (I6528)
 
230 per Lester Van Alstine book, vol.I,pg98:
He was a farmer, same as his father. Very particular about his farm. Ithad to be well fenced and free from brush and weeds. There were no rainydays at his place, for something always had to be done. His politics wereDemocratic and radical in his views. He would never hold a Town office.Only one of his sons is a farmer. They are the parents of ten children. 
Van Alstyne, Abram Francis (I6548)
 
231 PREACHED THE FUNERAL SERMON FOR MARY, QUEEN OF SCOTS. Howland, Right Rev. Richard (I749)
 
232 PRESIDENT OF FIRST BOARD OF EDUCATION OF CANAJOHARIE, NY.
Made a colonel, 8/28/1843, of the 19th Regiment of Cavalry of New York byWilliam C. Bouck, governor, dated March 22, 1844. 
Van Alstine, Lorenzo J. (I714)
 
233 PROPRIETOR OF GOLD SEAL DAIRY FARM, SPECIALIZING IN THE CLEANEST OF MILKFOR BABIES. RECEIVED 4 GOLD MEDALS FROM NYS FAIR FOR HIS MILK EXHIBITS.MOVED TO CALIFORNIA WHERE HE WAS IN THE NATIONAL FOREST SERVICE. Stjohn, Clyde Leland Sylvanus (I434)
 
234 RECEIVED HER TRAINING AT PHILADELPHIA GENERAL HOSPITAL, AND AN M.A. INNURSING EDUCATION AT COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY. SHE SERVED AS AN INSTRUCTOR OFNURSING AT THE ANA NORY SCHOOL OF NURSING IN RIO DE JANEIRO, AND THEN ASA PUBLIC HEALTH NURSING CONSULTANT IN RIO, THE AMAZON AND SAO FRANCISCORIVER ZONES; IN DUTCH GUYANA (SURINAM); SALVADOR AND LIBERIA, UNDER U.S.PROGRAMS FOR UNDER-DEVELOPED COUNTRIES. DURING WW II SHE COACHED U.S.OFFICIALS IN IDIOMATIC BRAZILIAN PORTUGUESE, GIVING EACH THE TECHNICALVOCABULARY NEEDED FOR THE PARTICULAR PROJECT. SHE WAS RECRUITED TO SETUP AND RUN A FIELD HOSPITAL IN THE WILDS OF INTERIOR BRAZIL FOR RESEARCHINTO AN OUTBREAK OF YELLOW FEVER UNDER THE JOINT EFFORT OF THE BRAZILIANGOVT AND EPIDEMIOLOGISTS OF THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION. Reno, Carol Hazen (I371)
 
235 Rector of Episcopal Church of Belleville, NJ. Leggett, William J. Rev. (I7466)
 
236 Replicated from: http://millercenter.org/academic/americanpresident/vanburen/essays/biography/1

Martin Van Buren said that the two happiest days of his life were his entrance into the office of President and his surrender of the office. While his political opponents were glad to see him go – they nicknamed him “Martin Van Ruin” - many Americans were not. Even though he lost the 1840 presidential election, Van Buren received 40,000 more votes than he had in his 1836 victory. In subsequent years, historians have come to regard Van Buren as integral to the development of the American political system.

Van Buren was the first President not born a British subject, or even of British ancestry. The Van Burens were a large, struggling family of Dutch descent. Martin's father, Abraham Van Buren -- a supporter of Thomas Jefferson in a region populated by supporters of Jefferson’s opponents, the Federalists -- ran a tavern where politicians often gathered as they traveled between New York City and Albany. This environment gave young Martin a taste for politics. Though the Van Burens could not afford to send Martin to college, he managed to get a job as a clerk in a law office where he began studying law independently. After he became a lawyer, Van Buren joined the Democratic-Republicans and began his political career, as a minor county official.


Political Savvy and Party Building

Immediately, Van Buren began showing the qualities that would eventually take him to the pinnacle of American politics -- and earn him a bevy of admirers as well as critics. Unfailingly polite and thoroughly shrewd, Van Buren proved an adept politician, negotiating the fractious political environment of New York state’s Democratic-Republican party. As a New York politician, he set about building a political organization of his fellow Democratic-Republicans that stressed unity, loyalty, and fealty to Jeffersonian political principles. Gradually, Van Buren moved from the New York State Senate, to the New York attorney general's office, and then to the U.S. Senate. Unhappy with the politics and policies of President John Quincy Adams, Van Buren aligned himself instead with Andrew Jackson, the immensely popular war hero who wanted a return to the Jeffersonian policies of minimalist government. In Washington, he continued his political party-building efforts, but on a national scale.

When Jackson became President, he named Van Buren secretary of state, in recognition of the New Yorker’s political acumen and his service during the 1828 election. From this position, Van Buren oversaw the nation’s foreign affairs. But his time in Washington was also spent cultivating political relationships and allies. Van Buren continued to build the political organization that would become the Democratic Party. Just as important, Van Buren quickly became one of Jackson’s trusted advisers and friends, even though the two men’s political views were not always perfectly in synch. Van Buren also skillfully navigated the tempestuous in-fighting that marked Jackson’s cabinet, where Vice President John Calhoun proved more an adversary than ally of the President. Toward the end of his first term, Jackson dismissed much of his cabinet, cut his relations with Vice President Calhoun, and dispatched Van Buren to the political calm of London as U.S. minister to England. During Jackson's second term, Van Buren served as vice president.


Managing a Troubled Nation

Van Buren won the presidential election of 1836 by promising to carry on the policies of Andrew Jackson. Unfortunately, Van Buren took office as the booming U.S. economy of the early and mid-1830s began to slow down. The so-called "Panic of 1837" was followed by the worst depression yet faced by the young nation. These economic troubles quickly became President Van Buren’s main concern.

Van Buren’s response to the crisis revealed his belief in the principles of a limited federal government, defense of states rights, and protection of the “people” from the “powerful.” Thus, Van Buren rejected his Whig opposition’s suggestion that he support a National Bank, which the Whigs believed could oversee and stabilize the nation’s economy. Instead, the President blamed the depression on powerful monied interests at home and abroad, and proposed that the federal government deposit its funds in an independent treasury, rather than in state banks, While Van Buren and Congress argued about the merits of the independent treasury -- which Congress finally authorized in the summer of 1840 -- the nation’s economic troubles continued.

Van Buren confronted several other potentially divisive issues while President. He managed to quiet talk of annexing Texas by steadfastly announcing his opposition to such a move. His main foreign policy concerns were the growing tensions between the United States and Great Britain over the border between the United States and Canada. Van Buren ignored calls from some Americans to respond to Canadian and British provocations with force, working instead successfully through diplomatic channels to calm tensions in the region. Van Buren’s measured approach to the northern border problems, however, only earned him the enmity of those who urged a more aggressive response.

Martin Van Buren's wife, Hannah, died twelve years after their marriage, leaving him a widower with four sons to raise by himself. Though Van Buren never remarried, his eldest son's wife, Angelica Singleton Van Buren, served as official White House hostess during the last two years of his presidency. His sons, moreover, emerged as some of his father’s most important aides and advisers; Abraham and Martin Jr. served as personal secretaries to their father when he was President.


Political Defeat

Facing criticism at home for both the economic depression and his handling of foreign affairs, Van Buren’s re-election chances suffered even more in the face of an inspired campaign offered by the Whigs and their candidate, William Henry Harrison. In only four years, the Whig party had matched the savvy and organization of the Democrats -- if not their shear numbers and ideological unity. The Whigs portrayed Harrison as the rough and tumble "Log Cabin and Hard Cider" candidate and ridiculed Van Buren as fussy, aristocratic, and unmanly. There was little truth in these images -- in reality, it was Van Buren who came from a modest background, while Harrison was from a ruling-class Virginia family -- but the charges, coupled with dissatisfaction over Van Buren’s governance, proved too much for the sitting President to overcome. Van Buren lost the election, failing even to carry his home state of New York.

Martin Van Buren served only one term as President, and those four years were marked as much by failure and criticism as by success and popular acclaim. Van Buren’s troubled presidency, though, should not overshadow his significant contributions to American political development. Van Buren played key roles in the creation of both the Democratic Party and the so-called “second party system” in which Democrats competed with their opponents, the Whigs. In these ways, Van Buren left an indelible mark on American politics. 
Van Buren, Martin Pres. (I6461)
 
237 Replicated from: http://millercenter.org/academic/americanpresident/vanburen/essays/biography/2

Life Before the Presidency

Martin Van Buren, born on December 5, 1782, was the first American President not born a British subject. Van Buren's non-British ancestry (his parents were Dutch) would break one presidential mold, and his modest upbringing was preceded only by that of Andrew Jackson.

Both of Van Buren’s parents, Abraham and Maria, were of pure Dutch extraction. They lived in Kinderhook, New York, a town near Albany that was populated largely by others of similar descent. The Van Burens were a struggling family with six children in the household, Martin being the fourth oldest. His mother had been widowed with three children before marrying his father. Not rich by any means, the Van Burens did own six slaves, which was not unusual for a family in Kinderhook. Politics, though, made the family a living. Abraham owned a tavern and inn frequented by government workers traveling between Albany and New York City. He held the post of town clerk for extra money, and the tavern hosted political meetings or elections. Guests at the tavern, such as Alexander Hamilton and Aaron Burr, offered young Martin his first glimpses of American politics.

Martin attended Kinderhook's one-room schoolhouse until age fourteen—an unusually advanced education for a child whose family needed his labor. Van Buren did not attend college – which was unsurprising for young men in the early nineteenth century – but his father called in a political favor and managed to place his son with a lawyer's office as a law clerk. Martin clerked for seven years, sweeping floors or running errands by day and studying law at night. He moved to New York City—at that time inhabited by 60,000—for about a year, and gained admission to the state bar in 1803 at the age of twenty-one.

Returning to Kinderhook, Van Buren opened his own law practice with his half-brother James Van Allen and achieved considerable success, both financially and in reputation. His clients included the tenants and renters who contested landlords’ colonial-era claims to property in New York’s Hudson Valley. By siding with the common people instead of the landed elite in these cases, Van Buren participated in – and indeed helped perpetuate – the ferment that helped redefine social and economic relations in the early years of the American Republic.


Savvy Political Choices

In addition to being a lawyer, Van Buren quickly made a name for himself in New York politics. The Federalist Party enjoyed dominance in the Hudson Valley region but Van Buren joined the Democratic-Republicans (who were led by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison), largely, it seems, because his father and his family’s friends were Jeffersonians. Van Buren’s political party affiliation alienated many friends and colleagues, and he often had to tangle with Federalist judges and lawyers. But he more than held his own, and his party's leaders quickly tagged him as one to watch. Most important, his decision to join the Jeffersonians marked the beginning of a commitment to Jeffersonian principles of limited federal government, defense of individual liberties, and the protection of local and state prerogatives in American politics.

New York state politics in the early years of the nineteenth century were anything but placid, and Van Buren had to navigate among the competing factions that ruled the state’s political scene. Two of the nation’s most prominent and skilled politicians -- DeWitt Clinton and Vice President Aaron Burr -- battled during these years for leadership of the Democratic-Republican Party in New York. Van Buren recognized that Burr was a falling star and deflected the Vice President’s allies’ political entreaties, even while maintaining their friendship. Instead, Van Buren threw his support to Clinton’s faction of Democratic-Republicans.. The Clintonians awarded Van Buren with a county official’s post in 1808. It was during these years, as Van Buren shifted alliances and kept his political intentions and loyalties secret, that his critics labeled him devious and unprincipled.


Love and Leader of the "Bucktails"

In early 1807, while involved in local politics, Van Buren married a young woman he had known all his life named Hanna Hoes. The young couple settled in Hudson, a small town about ten miles from Kinderhook, where Van Buren practiced law; their first of four sons followed about a year later. 1812, Van Buren's courtroom successes enabled him to run for New York's state senate, and he managed a narrow half-percent victory over the Federalist opponent to win the seat.

It was a turbulent time for Van Buren to further his political career. The resurgent Federalist party, which capitalized on the unpopularity of the War of 1812, threatened to overwhelm the Democratic-Republican majority crafted by President Jefferson and his allies. When American fortunes in the war revived in 1814, Federalist power receded, although the party still maintained significant support in New York. Just as distressing to Van Buren were the problems brewing within New York’s Democratic-Republican Party. The factional competition that marked the first decade of the nineteenth century only intensified during the 1810s. Van Buren understood that conflict was inevitable, but he feared that incessant, uncontrolled, and destructive in-fighting only weakened New York’s Democratic-Republicans and provided a political opening upon which the Federalists might capitalize. He wanted Democratic-Republicans to forgo their personal rivalries and loyalties in favor of unity to party and principles.

Van Buren did not divorce himself from the partisan disputes that marred the Democrat-Republicans. He himself commanded his own faction, the “Bucktails,” so named because they wore bucktails (the tails of a deer) on their hats. A collection of allies from Van Buren’s region and from the New York state senate, the Bucktails coalesced around a few principles and positions. First, they were committed to the defeat of the Federalists, who the Bucktails feared, sought to establish a strong federal government. Second, they valued, above all else, Jeffersonian ideals and principles. Third, they saw the Democratic-Republican party as indispensable to the defense of Jeffersonian principles and to the defeat of the Federalists. Finally, the Bucktails were unanimous in their dislike of New York’s most powerful politician, the Democrat-Republican Dewitt Clinton, whom they found wanting on each of these positions.

Van Buren’s battles with Clinton during the 1810s were at the heart of New York state’s politics -- and sustained Van Buren’s reputation for being an unscrupulous political opportunist. After Van Buren won reelection to the state senate in 1816 at the age of thirty-two, he was named New York's attorney general. From this position, Van Buren and the Bucktails struggled unsuccessfully to topple DeWitt Clinton. When the hard-edged party chief won New York's governorship in 1817, he began to dismiss all Bucktail appointees in the state's government. Van Buren held onto his attorney general post for another two years until 1819, then lost it to the Clinton forces.

By this time, Van Buren's wife, Hannah, was suffering from tuberculosis. She died in early 1819, leaving Van Buren a widower with four sons to raise. In the midst of this personal tragedy, he forged ahead with his political agenda of unifying the Democratic-Republican party, defending Jeffersonian principles, and defeating Clinton. Rallying his allies, Van Buren forced the removal of key Clinton political appointees and played a key role at the New York constitutional convention in 1821. These efforts strengthened Van Buren's position among New York’s Democratic-Republicans, and by 1820 he headed a party machine known -- by its enemies -- as the "Albany Regency."

Politically powerful and at the head of a potent organization, Van Buren won election to the United States Senate in 1821. Despite moving to Washington, D.C., to serve in the Senate, he maintained control of the Albany Regency. The power of this party organization, combined with Van Buren's political acuity, made him an influential senator in short order. Just as important, Van Buren brought to Washington an appreciation -- earned during his political apprenticeship in New York -- of the advantages that a well-organized and ideologically unified party held in the political arena.


A Washington Politico

In the Senate, Van Buren served on the finance committee and chaired the judiciary committee. He brought his pro-states’ rights, Jeffersonian commitment to limited government to the major issues of the day, the tariff and internal improvements. He consistently opposed federally financed internal improvements, While suspicious of the tariff, Van Buren refused to oppose it outright, recognizing that even some Jeffersonians supported a protectionist trade policy in certain cases.

On these issues and a host of others, Van Buren, much to his consternation, found the Democratic-Republican party split into different factions. He sought to bridge these divides and build a cohesive party consonant with Jeffersonian and anti-Federalist political ideals. Van Buren recognized the difficulty of unifying this fractious collection of Democratic-Republicans -- each member had his own political views and, more important, his own constituencies and alliances to maintain -- but he nonetheless reached out to potential allies, even the prickly Senator John Calhoun of South Carolina.

In 1824, Van Buren supported Secretary of the Treasury William Crawford of Georgia for the presidency largely because Crawford shared his Jeffersonian political beliefs. Crawford fared poorly in the election, finishing a distant third in the electoral college. Neither of the two leading candidates, Andrew Jackson or John Quincy Adams, though, had enough electoral votes to claim the presidency. The election went to the House of Representatives where the fourth place finisher, Senator Henry Clay, threw his votes to Adams, who won the presidency. Jackson’s supporters were outraged – they believed that a “corrupt bargain” between Adams and Clay had cost their man the White House – and vowed to win the 1828 election.

Van Buren was just as distressed as Jackson’s supporters, believing that Adams was a Federalist in all but name and deploring the new President’s intention to strengthen the federal government’s hand in economic development. In the Senate, Van Buren led the opposition to the Adams administration. He also threw his support to Jackson and began working for his election in 1828, bringing together the anti-Adams factions of the Democratic-Republicans under Jackson’s standard. The Jackson-Van Buren coalition, seeking a return to the Jeffersonian policies of minimalist federal government and the protection of local and state concerns, marked the very beginnings of the Democratic Party.

In the 1828 presidential election, Van Buren’s work in support of Jackson among Democratic-Republicans, paid off when Jackson defeated Adams. The contest was notable both for its vitriol and its massive turn-out -- 800,000 more voters went to the polls in 1828 than in 1824. This surge in participation had several sources, especially Jackson’s popularity and charisma (he was a war hero with the memorable nickname of “Old Hickory”) and the passage of laws in a few key states that enfranchised more Americans. Just as important, though, were the concerted efforts of Democratic-Republican leaders -- like Van Buren -- to turn out the vote. A new era in American politics, one dominated by political parties -- was dawning.

That same year, Van Buren also won the New York gubernatorial election. It was a position he would hold only for a few weeks because the newly elected President asked Van Buren to join his cabinet as secretary of state. Van Buren resigned his governorship and returned to Washington, accepting an appointment that would further catapult him into the national political scene.


Battles to Succeed President Jackson

Jackson’s two terms as President were some of the most contentious and eventful years in the history of American politics. During the first term, the coalition that lined up in support of Jackson became the Democratic Party. While unified in name, they hardly were in practice. Vicious in-fighting broke out among Jackson’s supporters, with Secretary of State Van Buren heading up one bloc and Vice President John Calhoun the other. The disagreements ranged from the political to the personal. In the latter, the Peggy Eaton affair took center stage. The scandal pitted Washington's elite against Peggy O'Neill, a woman from humble beginnings who had married Jackson's Secretary of War John Eaton. Her social status and the possibility that she may have begun her relationship with Eaton while still married to her first husband spread rapidly through the capital's gossip network. Virtually all of Washington's elite snubbed Peggy O'Neill Eaton, especially Vice President Calhoun's wife.

Van Buren, however, did not follow suit and instead invited the Eatons to social engagements. Jackson, whose own late wife Rachel had suffered personal attacks at the hands of her husband’s opponents and enemies in the 1824 and 1828 campaigns -- in fact, he blamed her death in 1828 on these attacks -- sided with Eaton and his new bride. He appreciated Van Buren’s kindness towards the couple.

At the same time, however, the conflict between Van Buren and Calhoun arouse from more weighty, political matters. Calhoun and his supporters took an extreme states’ rights position that outpaced even Van Buren’s own fear of a centralized, powerful national government. It was Van Buren, after all, who helped Jackson prepare his simple rejoinder (“The Union: it must be preserved”) to Calhoun’s states’ rights position at the annual Jefferson Day dinner in 1830. The dinner confrontation was only the beginning of an almost three year controversy over South Carolina’s claim that it could nullify federal tariffs and, in effect, defy the federal government. The case quickly turned into a debate on states' rights. Calhoun led the South Carolina nullifiers, while Van Buren helped shape the Jackson administration’s position declaring South Carolina's defiance unconstitutional.

The tensions within the cabinet were so debilitating that Jackson began to rely on an informal "Kitchen Cabinet" of advisers, a group who played a key role in articulating what became known as Jacksonian ideology. Not surprisingly, Van Buren was a member of the Kitchen Cabinet. He drafted the most important, early statement of this ideology -- the Maysville Road Bill veto -- which outlined objections to federally financed internal improvements. But the discord in the Jackson administration soon proved too much. In the spring of 1831, Van Buren designed a plan in which he (and Eaton) would resign from the Cabinet, allowing Jackson to ask for resignations from the rest of the Cabinet. Jackson would then be able to appoint a cabinet comprised of his allies.

Jackson agreed, with some reluctance, to Van Buren’s plan and reorganized his cabinet. He then appointed Van Buren the American minister to England in the late summer of 1831. Van Buren spent only six months in England as the Senate, in January 1832, refused to confirm his appointment by one vote – a ballot cast by Vice President John Calhoun. Van Buren returned to the United States later that spring. But his rejection at the hands of the Senate only secured the alliance between Van Buren and the President. Jackson selected him as his running-mate for the 1832 election, which the President won quite handily.

Much of Van Buren's energies during his vice presidency were focused on Jackson's epic battle with the Second Bank of the United States. This institution had sole right to regulate the issuance of paper currency and credit rates, and Jackson thought its immense powers benefited the privileged few to the disadvantage of many Americans. When the Bank’s president, Nicholas Biddle, successfully petitioned Congress for the Bank’s recharter, Jackson vetoed the bill in July 1832. The veto ignited “the Bank War,” pitting President Jackson against pro-Bank Senator Henry Clay, his allies in Congress, and Biddle, that marked much of Jackson’s second term. The president successfully resisted the pro-Bank forces’ efforts to have him sign the recharter bill. Moreover, Jackson weakened the Bank by withdrawing federal funds it held and placing them in a network of smaller state banks (called "pet banks"). While Van Buren had grave reservations about the soundness of this decision, fearing it would ignite a political firestorm (which it did), he went along with the President. The popular Jackson eventually prevailed in the crisis, largely because of the clumsy political maneuvering of Clay and Biddle.

The Bank War helped crystallize the emerging party structure that would dominate American politics for the next two decades. Jackson’s antagonists -- known as “the Opposition” -- organized in 1833. This coalition of national Republicans included anti-Masons, ex-Jacksonians, supporters of Senator John Calhoun, and figures such as ex-President Adams and Senator Henry Clay, and began to call themselves the Whigs in 1834. The Whig Party drew its energy and coherence, at least initially, from its opposition to “King Andrew,” as they derisively labeled Jackson, who they warned would do nothing less than overturn the chief victory of the American Revolution: republican, self-government.

At the same time, the Democratic Party during Jackson’s second term became a more ideologically coherent and unified organization. Since his arrival in Washington in 1822, Van Buren had sought the creation of such an organization -- even if he could not have predicted the development of the Democratic Party -- and he had played a signal role in its accomplishment. He then went into the 1836 election as Jackson’s chosen heir and with the support of a powerful Democratic party. But Van Buren also confronted a Whig party -- which he, Jackson, and the Democrats unwittingly had helped create -- eager to defeat him. 
Van Buren, Martin Pres. (I6461)
 
238 RETIRED 1972 AS MAINTENANCE SUPERVISOR AT BEECH-NUT PACKING CO,CANAJOHARIE, NY
OWNED FOR A TIME FREY HOUSE, PALATINE BRIDGE, NY. 
Stjohn, Donald Maurice (I385)
 
239 Richard died while on a wrecker call. He was owner and operator ofCarnes Body Shop, Inc. where he worked for 45 years. He was a member ofthe Huntington Moose and Southside Business Association. Services wereconducted Jan. 29, 1991 at the Robbins Funeral Home, with Rev. LarryTaylor officiating. Carnes, Richard E. (I4000)
 
240 SAILED FROM ENGLAND ABOARD 'INCREASE' APRIL 15, 1635. HIS NAME IS ONMONUMENT IN HONOR OF FIRST SETTLERS OF HARTFORD, CN. ONE OF TWELVEEARLIEST EMIGRANTS WHOSE NAME IS KNOWN. Marvin, Matthew (I557)
 
241 SAILED FROM ENGLAND WITH FAMILY. DIED ON THE VOYAGE. FAMILY SETTLED ATSAYBROOK, CT. 1641. ALSO LIVE AT LYME, CT. Lee, Thomas (I654)
 
242 SAILED FROM LONDON, ENGLAND WITH HIS WIFE AND FAMILY AND SETTLED INBRAINTREE, MASS. AND AFTERWARD WINDSOR, CT. 1636.
AMONG HIS SONS, TWO WERE ANCESTORS OF LEWIS S. ST.JOHN. THEY WERE BORNIN ESSEX CO., ENGLAND. THEY WERE DEACON JOHN LOOMIS, B. 1622, AND THOMASLOOMIS, B. 1624. 
Loomis, Joseph (I589)
 
243 SALMON WOOD, youngest son of John and Lydia (Davis) Wood, was b. in Littleton, Mass., Aug. 15, 1757. His father d. in 1758; his mother afterward m. Dea. David Goodridge, of Fitchburg, Mass., where Salmon lived until he m. Sibyl Whettemore, of New Ipswich, N. H., 1780; she was born Sept. 21, 1762, and d. Mar. 19, 1845. Salmon d. Feb. 25, 1823.
They lived at Rindge a short time, then settled in Hancock, N. H., 1784, where some of the descendants still reside. They were two of the sixteen original members of the first church organized in Hancock. Bought several hundred acres of land. In 1784 he built a part of the house and in 1801 he built the rest. In addition to his extensive farm, he kept a hotel, run a saw-mill and a blacksmith shop. This farm is now owned and occupied by his descendants. A view of the old homestead which is the Skatutahkee Valley Farm, is now being prepared for their town history. Salmon Wood was out three times in the war of the Revolution. He was an upright, honorable citizen, accomplished much in his time, and was ably assisted by his wife, a woman of great ability and personal worth. 
Family F3158
 
244 SAMUEL AND JANE WERE FIFTH GREAT GRANDPARENTS OF GROVER CLEVELAND, ANDFOURTH GREAT GRANDPARENTS OF PROF. PERKINS OF UNION COLLEGE. Hyde, Samuel (I657)
 
245 served in Revolutionary War Whitman, Noah (I9188)
 
246 SERVED IN REVOLUTIONARY WAR. FROM N.J. WAS TAKEN PRISONER NOV.11,1776;PAROLED DEC.26,1776. ALSO SERVED AS PRIVATE, MINUTEMAN, IN THE MIDDLESEXCO., N.J. MILITIA. SERVED AS TEAMSTER IN WAGON DEPT. OF N.J. MILITIADURING REVOLUTIONARY WAR.
HOMESTEAD WAS ON THE ROAD BETWEEN FORDS AND BONHAMTOWN, NJ, ABOUT HALFWAY BETWEEN THE TWO PLACES. 
Freeman, Thomas Sr. (I1120)
 
247 SERVED IN THE REVOLUTION AS A MEMBER OF THE TRYON COUNTY FIRST REGIMENTMILITIA. Van Alstyne, Matthew (I5275)
 
248 SERVED IN W.W. I. GASSED WHILE SERVING IN NORTHERN FRANCE. RETURNED HOMEAND RECOVERED FULLY. WORKED AT G.E. AND WHEN WW II CAME ALONG, HE WASINDUCTED AS A MAJOR. SERVED IN SAIPAN AND OTHER PLACES. RETIRED AS ACOLONEL. RECEIVED THE SILVER STAR. MOVED HIS FAMILY TO CALIFORNIA.JENSEN FAMILY KNOWN ALWAYS FOR THEIR ABSOLUTE HONESTY, DEPENDABILITY ANDCLEAN LIVING. Jensen, Leslie Merkob (I2890)
 
249 SETTLED IN ALBANY, MOVED TO KINDERHOOK, THEN CANAJOHARIE, THEN SCHOHARIE CO.

Member of the Oath of Allegiance to King William of Orange, Kinderhook, 1699. 
Van Alstyne (van Aelsteyn), Isaac Janse (I2051)
 
250 SETTLED IN ALBANY; MOVED TO CANAJOHARIE, NY IN 1736. ERECTED STONEBUILDING AFTERWARDS A FORT (RENSSELAER) 1729-1730. OWNED SEVERAL THOUSANDACRES ALONG MOHAWK RIVER WITH BROTHER ISAAC. Van Alstyne (van Aelsteyn), Martin Janse (I686)
 

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